This website is the home to the Electrophysical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) special interest group! 

EPADU is a special interest group represeting those with an interest in Electrotherapy and Diagnostic Ultrasound. 

Electrotherapy, or more properly, the Electro Physical Agents (EPA's) have been a core skill area in Physiotherapy since the very early days of the profession. Much as there has been a significant shift in the application of these modalities in recent years, their use is evidenced as being effective when selected and employed appropriately. The range of modalities includes a wide range of electrical stimulation methods (e.g. TENS, Interferential Therapy, Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)), Ultrasound, Laser, Shortwave (pulsed, continuous and associated radiofrequency applications), shockwave, magnetic based therapies and numerous variations. Heat and cold applications have historically fallen within the EPA remit. The Electrotherapy special interest group of the CSP (ACPIE as was) has been in existence since the early 1990's and we remain active alongside our colleagues in diagnostic ultrasound in the recently formed EPADU group. We are also strongly linked to the International Society for Electrophysical Agents in Physical Therapy (ISEAPT), which is an active sub group of WCPT.

Diagnostic Ultrasound is playing an increasing role in asssisting clinicians with their assessments of musculoskeletal complaints both in routINE MSK outpatient settings and in specialist Womens Health clinics. Physiotherapists are ideally placed to utilise this new assessment tool, alongside their clinical examination skills. Originally the Dynamic Ultrasound Group (DUG) formed by John Leddy and Mark Maybury, who continue to be part of the committee of EPADU.


Sarah Bazin OBE, FCSPTim Watson PhD BSc FCSP
Cliff EatonJane Dixon
Mark MayburyJohn Leddy
Stuart WildmanGordon Lumsden
Mike BryantMike Smith


Sarah Bazin OBE, FCSP

Sarah Bazin is chair of the Electrophysical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) Professional Network. Sarah is Chair of the European Region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (ER-WCPT) and Vice President of the UK Chartered Society of Physiotherapy and has had many years experience as a Therapy Services Manager in an Acute NHS Hospital Trust in England. She was a member of the Council of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP) for 14 years representing the West Midlands and served as Vice Chair and Chair of the Council, she is currently a Vice President of the Society.

Sarah was a member of the national Quality Assurance and Enhancement programme development team, looking at all under-graduate programmes.

She was awarded a Fellowship of the Society in 2007 and an OBE in the 2008 New Year’s Honours list for services to Physiotherapy and Healthcare in the West Midlands where she had been the Allied Health Professions and Health Care Scientists Leadership Lead. She is currently president of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy’s Leaders and Managers of Physiotherapy Services Occupational Group, and Chair of the CSP Medicines Management Advisory Group, which included the negotiations with central government for Independent Prescribing Rights for Physiotherapists granted in August 2013.  Sarah is Chair of the College of Medicine Faculty of Neuro Musculoskeletal Medicine.  She was elected to the position of First vice Chair of the European Region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy in May 2008 and became the Chair of ER-WCPT in May 2010, just re-elected for a further four year term.

Tim Watson PhD BSc FCSP

Tim trained as a physiotherapist in London, UK, qualifying in 1979. After spending some years in the Health Service, and with various sports clubs and National Teams, he took up a lecturing role at West Middlesex Hospital, then Brunel University and now at the University of Hertfordshire. He undertook a degree in Biomedical Sciences followed by a PhD in Bioelectronics from the University of Surrey in 1994. He researches in several fields associated primarily with electro physical agents / electrotherapy and tissue repair and is currently Professor of Physiotherapy at the University of Hertfordshire and a freelance consultant. He has published over 50 journal papers, is editor of a core text on electrotherapy and has contributed numerous chapters in other edited texts and is on the Editorial Board of 2 physical therapy journals.  He reviews for more than 25 journals and grant authorities and has presented more than 870 professional lectures, short courses and conference papers. He is responsible for the www.electrotherapy.org web site, was awarded a Fellowship of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy in the UK in 2013 and is on the Executive for the Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound group in the UK and on the ISEAPT sub group of the WCPT.

Cliff Eaton

Cliff qualified as a Chartered Physiotherapist and specialised in sports medicine. He has worked in Athletics, Premiership Football, County Cricket, Premiership rugby and private practice. More recently Cliff has turned his attention to promoting the effective use of electrotherapy.  He does this by providing workshops and lectures, especially on Neuromuscular Stimulation and Shockwave, both in the UK and Internationally.  His workshops provide practical application of electrotherapy modalities, as an adjunct, to other Physiotherapy modalities. In 2010, Cliff completed a CASE accredited PGC in MSK Ultrasound at University of Cumbria.  He now includes USS as part of his MSK assessments, as appropriate, when working clinically

Jane Dixon

After qualifying from Manchester Royal Infirmary in 1971, Jane initially specialised in paediatrics.  In 1984 she started in private practice and it was then that she began treating patients with continence problems.  In 1996, Jane completed the ACPWH Post-graduate Continence Course.  In 2005 she completed the Independent and Supplementary Prescribing course at Anglia Ruskin University and became one of the first women's health supplementary prescribers in the UK. Jane is a member of the Medicines Management Group of the CSP. Since 2002, she has been using real-time ultrasound to assess and treat pelvic floor dysfunction, lecturing nationally and internationally on this topic.  Jane was one of the co-founders of DUG (the Dynamic Ultrasound Group) which has now merged with ACPIE to form EPADU, the Electro Physical Agents and Dynamic Ultrasound Professional Network.

Mark Maybury

Mark spends his time working between Good Hope Hospital, part of the Heart of England Foundation Trust in Birmingham, and at the St Luke’s Soft Tissue Injury Clinic in Oxford. His main professional interests are the application of diagnostic ultrasound scanning to physiotherapy practice, guided injections, and research applications of ultrasound imaging.

John Leddy

John currently works part time as a consultant sonographer at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, as well as supporting a number of musculoskeletal services and teaching programmes. Coming into healthcare from Air Traffic Control, John’s previous roles have included clinical specialist at the Reading Shoulder Surgery Unit, and Research Fellow with the Kings College Primary Care Unit. He has extensive experience in orthopaedic medicine in addition to his expertise in visceral and small parts sonography.

Stuart Wildman

Stuart is an Extended Scope Physiotherapist working in the NHS in London. He qualified from the University of Southampton in 2003 with a BSc Physiotherapy, and went on to gain an MSc in Advanced Neuromusculoskeletal Physiotherapy at The University of Hertfordshire. He is an active member of the executive committee of EPADU (Electrophysical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound) special interest group, helping develop the use of diagnostic ultrasound in Physiotherapy within the UK. He is also a member of the well regarded MACP (The Musculoskeletal Association of Chartered Physiotherapists) and ACPOMIT (The Association for Chartered Physiotherapists with an interest in Orthopaedic Medicine and Injection Therapy). Stuart is currently studying to gain a PG Cert in Musculoskeletal (MSK) Ultrasound at Canterbury and Christ Church University, and uses diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound daily within his practice to enhance clinical decision making and also to assist with guided injections/aspirations.

Stuart developed and is editor of www.theultrasoundsite.co.uk, a website to promote online learning for those using Muscloskeletal Ultrasound.

Gordon Lumsden

Gordon is an extended scope practitioner in upper limb and spinal conditions at Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital and has successfully integrated dynamic ultrasound as part of the assessment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal patients since 2004.  He performs and reports on his own scans and has been carrying out ultrasound guided injections for many years.  One of the founding members of DUG (now EPADU) he is completing a MSc in Medical Ultrasound Imaging (MSK) and his interests lie in developing pathways for physiotherapists to become competent in the use of dynamic ultrasound and factors influencing outcomes with MSK injections.

Mike Bryant

Michael Bryant is a NHS appointed Consultant MSK Physiotherapist and MSKSonographer. He leads a primary care MSK service incorporating standard MSK physiotherapy and a Tier 2 Orthopaedic triage service in the Blackpool Fylde & Wyre region. He qualified from Pinderfields School of physiotherapy in 1997 and has extensive experience in the NHS, private practice, occupational health & Professional sport, prior to his Consultant post he was an Extended Scope Physiotherapy Practitioner in a community MSK service in Blackburn.

He has a post grad MSc in Manipulative Physiotherapy from Sheffield Hallam. He has a Pg Cert in MSK Ultrasonography from Cumbria University. He has been using US since 2007 and has a particularly interest in tendinopathy and ultrasound guided interventional treatments such asShoulder Barbottage, Hydrodialatation and various guided injections. His goal is to promote and help develop the use of Diagnostic Ultrasound as part of standard physiotherapy practice. He lectures on the Cumbria MSK ultrasound course and is an Honorary Lecturer on the Ultrasound Programme, he also teaches on the Injection Therapy Course at UCLan as well as various MSK ultrasound courses.

Mike Smith

Mike is a Lecturer in Physiotherapy at Cardiff University and has a specialist interest in the shoulder. Having become a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Mike more recently secured a prestigious £170,000 PhD Fellowship from Arthritis Research UK which included him retraining as a Diagnostic Sonographer. He completed his CASE approved Post Graduate Certificate in Medical Ultrasound via the School of Medicine at Cardiff University, specialising in musculoskeletal ultrasound and more especially the shoulder.

Stemming from his training, Mike lead authored “A training, assessment and feedback package for the trainee shoulder sonographer” (Ultrasound. 2015 Feb; 23(1): 29–41.) which was subsequently cited in the current Society and College of Radiographers and British Medical Ultrasound Society “Guidelines for Professional Ultrasound Practice”. Alongside supporting the BMUS Musculoskeletal Ultrasound study days, Mike sits on the BMUS Professional Standards Group Committee. Mike is passionate about the highest standards in ultrasound education and practice and initiated the process of the CSP joining CASE. He subsequently sits on CASE committee representing the CSP.